The development of mineral processing equipment and mineral processing technology is synchronized, the mining process is dominant, and the equipment is the foundation. The birth of a new type of mineral processing equipment often leads to changes in the beneficiation process. The technical level of the equipment is not only the premise of the process level but also directly affects the smooth flow and application of the production process. The advancement of science and technology, the mutual penetration of various scientific categories and the integration of various industries, new structures, new materials, new technologies and new processing technologies emerge one after another. The extensive application of mechatronics and automatic control technology has effectively promoted beneficiation. Continuous innovation of equipment and development towards energy efficiency.
Mineral beneficiation method
- Gravity separation
The gravity separation method is based on the difference in the relative density of minerals (usually called specific gravity) to sort minerals. Mineral particles of different densities are subjected to hydrodynamic forces and various mechanical forces in the moving medium (water, air and heavy liquid), resulting in suitable loose delamination and separation conditions, so that different density of ore particles can be separated.
The flotation processing is based on the difference in physical and chemical properties of the mineral surface, and is treated by a flotation agent to selectively attach the useful mineral to the bubble to achieve the purpose of sorting.
The ore dressing of non-ferrous metal ore, such as copper, lead, zinc, sulfur, molybdenum and other mines, is mainly treated by flotation; some ferrous metals, rare metals and some non-metallic ores, such as graphite ore, apatite, etc. are also used for flotation.
- Magnetic separation method
The magnetic separation method is based on the difference in mineral magnetic properties, and different minerals are subjected to different forces in the magnetic field of the magnetic separator, thereby obtaining sorting. It is mainly used for the selection of ferrous metal ores (iron, manganese, chromium); it is also used for the selection of colored and rare metal ores.
- Electrical separation method
Electroporation is sorted based on the difference in mineral conductivity. When the mineral passes through the high-voltage electric field of the electric separator, the electrostatic force acting on the mineral is different due to the difference in the conductivity of the mineral, so that the mineral can be separated. Electroporation is used for the selection of rare metals, non-ferrous metals and non-metallic ores. Currently used mainly for the separation and selection of mixed coarse concentrates; such as the separation of white tungsten and cassiterite; the selection of zircon, the selection of antimony ore.
Mineral processing equipment
Mineral processing equipment includes: ball mill, crusher, pulverizer, jaw crusher, impact crusher, cone crusher, ultra-fine crusher, magnetic separator, dry magnetic separator, wet magnetic separator, double force ring height Gradient magnetic separator, magnetite ore dressing equipment, flotation machine, mining flotation machine, classifier, spiral classifier, sorghum spiral classifier, dryer, rotary kiln, shaker, hoist, high frequency Sieve, finished sieve, high-efficiency concentrator, spiral chute, disc granulator, trough feeder, energy-saving ball mill.
- 1 Crusher: jaw crusher, hammer crusher, impact crusher, cone crusher, tooth roll crusher, double roll crusher, etc.
- Ball mill: cement ball mill, cone ball mill, ceramic ball mill, energy-saving ball mill, high-energy ball mill, high-fine ball mill, lattice ball mill, overflow ball mill, etc.
- Screening and grading equipment: high-frequency sieve, circular vibrating screen, linear vibrating screen, drum screen, finished sieve, classifier, etc.
- Magnetic separator: wet magnetic separator, dry magnetic separator; strong magnetic field separator, medium magnetic field separator, weak magnetic field separator; river sand magnetic separator, wet permanent magnet cartridge magnetic separator.
- Flotation machine: SF type flotation machine, XJK series flotation machine, stirring flotation machine, etc.
- Mineral processing auxiliary equipment: vibrating feeder, trough feeder, mixing tank, bucket elevator, pendulum feeder, electromagnetic vibrating feeder, high-efficiency concentrator, disc granulator, disc feeder, shaker, spiral chute, cement mill / raw material mill, MBS rod mill, etc.
- Drying and calcining equipment: dryer, rotary kiln, etc.
Development trend of mining equipment
The crushing equipment plays an important role in the process of mineral processing and mineral dressing. The main development characteristics in recent years are:
(1) The advanced equipment of international famous brands is continuously optimized and developed in the direction of adopting new design ideas, introducing modern science and technology and large-scale.
(2) The development of pulverization theory and experimental technology, catastrophe theory, fractal theory, discrete teaching and other methods were introduced into the smash theory research. Theoretical studies on the ball milling process and research on crushing work index have been reported. Crushing test techniques tend to replace semi-industrial tests with small laboratory tests and computer simulations.
(3) The principle of material layer pulverization has had a great impact on the development and development of crushing engineering equipment. This principle is commonly adopted in the development of new equipment and in the transformation of old equipment.
(4) Since the key to achieving multiple crushing and grinding is to reduce the particle size of the final crushed product (ie, the particle size of the grinding), the proportion of crushing equipment in the research and development work in this range is greater than that of the grinding equipment, which is finely crushed. And the development and development of ultra-fine crushing equipment accounted for a large proportion.
(5) In order to achieve more and more grinding, more and more domestic advanced crushing engineering equipment has been introduced, and more and more large-scale equipment has been introduced.
(6) The crushing engineering equipment developed and developed in China is mainly small and medium-sized, and its development characteristics are diversified types. Some products (such as ball mills) are moving toward large-scale.