At this stage, the main methods used in the deep mining of gold mines in China are the open-pit mining method and the underground mining method. So far, China has mastered more than 30 methods of deep mining gold mines. Each deep gold mining method has its own advantages and disadvantages.
Gold Mines Deep Mining Methods
1. Shallow Hole Retention Method
The characteristics of the shallow hole ore retention method are that only a small amount of work is required for cutting, less equipment is required, no large investment is required, the mining process is relatively simple during the mining process, and the deep mining efficiency of gold mines is relatively high High, the speed of reaching the standard has also been relatively improved. Therefore, some small and medium-sized gold mines are suitable for mining in this way. However, the shallow hole ore retention method also has certain problems in the deep mining process of gold mines. In the mining process of gold mines such as flat fields, the workload of secondary crushing is relatively large, and the mining personnel Also has a large amount of labor. The demand for goaf is also relatively large and so on.
2. Filling Method
Compared with other types of mines, the proportion is higher, and there are many types. In the operation process, the vertical and vertical layered filling is mainly carried out according to the level of hierarchical cementing. When this method is used for mining, the recovery rate of gold can be greatly improved, and the material consumed is also relatively low. It is a mining method advocated in the deep mining of gold mines in China at present. However, the main problem is that the workflow in the mining process is relatively complex, the production cost consumed is relatively high, and the investment in basic equipment is relatively large.
3. Top Coal Mining Method
The top-coal caving mining method belongs to a mining method for top-coal caving and surrounding rock caving, which requires a lot of resources during mining. Therefore, this mining method has certain limitations in its application. For example, it is not suitable for gold mining in places with relatively important infrastructure roads on the ground, transmission lines, etc.
4. Caving Mining Method
The caving mining method is mainly used to manage the ground pressure around mining by caving the surrounding rock, and then filling it into the goaf to manage the ground pressure. When using this method for deep mining of gold mines, there are mainly the following methods.
First, there is the sub-column caving method. When this method is applied, each sub-section is mainly mined from top to bottom, and a bottom structure for mining is specially set up at the lower part of each sub-section.
The second method is the subsection caving method without bottom pillars. This method does not have a special mining structure at the lower part of each subsection during the application process, and the mining work of each subsection is in the mining tunnel. ongoing. Therefore, this greatly simplifies the structure of the mining area, brings a certain promotion effect to the use of advanced mining equipment, and also ensures the personal safety of mining personnel.
The third is the stage caving method. This method mainly means that the mining height and all stages are the same height. The ore is caved by artificially forced caving or natural caving, and then the caving ore is filled into the goaf to manage the ground pressure.
The 4 mining methods mentioned above have their own advantages and disadvantages. In the specific mining process, the appropriate mining method needs to be used according to the specific situation.
Gold Beneficiation Methods
Gold beneficiation methods mainly include gravity separation, cyanidation, flotation, and amalgamation, but the amalgamation method has been banned in China.
It is suitable for those gold mines where the gold particle size is large and the gold particles are easier to separate out. First, break the ore, and then use the principle of big waves to wash away the useless stones with water, leaving the gold behind.
It is suitable for those gold mines where the gold particles are small and there are not many impurities affecting the gold extraction by cyanide. The gold can be extracted with cyanide.
The gold in some mines is very small and is wrapped in some sulfide or arsenic. No matter how broken it is, the gold cannot be exposed, so the cyanide cannot chemically react with the gold, and the sulfide or arsenic can not be exposed. Arsenic will seriously affect the cyanidation leaching of gold, so cyanide cannot be used directly to extract gold, and gold-containing sulfide or arsenide must be selected by flotation before treatment.
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